Yesterday’s blog post focused on the importance of mesenchymal stem cells for a variety of medical procedures, including plastic and aesthetic surgery. Today’s post will review the current state of the science regarding stem cells used for fillers in plastic surgery applications. For nearly 100 years physicians have been seeking the ideal tissue filler that can be injected into virtually any part of the body and plane of tissue, can survive in tissues that experience ischemia (lack of blood flow), and generates a long-lasting result that can be easily reproduced. Though medical science has made impressive advancements to this end, there are still some drawbacks to stem cells and autologous fat grafting. Such drawbacks include donor-site morbidity and the body’s ability to reabsorb the grafted materials. Donor site morbidity involves disease in the donor tissue that would prevent successful harvesting and use of the cells and tissue. Re-absorption of grafted cells remains a concern and scientists cannot gauge just how much of the injected filler would be metabolized by the body and how long it would be before the patient required additional grafting. Despite drawbacks, plastic and reconstructive surgeons in Houston and globally are using stem cells in facial rejuvenation, breast reconstruction, breast augmentation, and in other areas of regenerative medicine. Plastic surgeons are using stem-cells and fat transplantation to address soft-tissue defects in the breasts with good success. The bottom line is that more work and analysis of results is required before stem cell therapy is universally embraced by all plastic surgeons, but there remains to be great promise for anti-aging, plastic and aesthetic surgery, and in other fields of medicine such as cardiology, endocrinology, neurology and many others. Michael Eisemann, M.D. is well-respected Houston area plastic surgeon whose career and expertise has spanned over three decades. Dr. Eisemann is committed to continuing medical education and research efforts in the field of plastic surgery.